## Solved – Different notions of over-parameterization

While reading a paper, I came across the statement This prediction function will be parameterized by a parameter vector $theta$ in a parameter space $Theta$. Often, this prediction function will be over-parameterized and two parameters $(theta, theta') in Theta^2$ that yield the same prediction function everywhere, $forall x in mathscr{X}, f_theta(x)=f_{theta'}(x)$, are called observationally equivalent. … Read more