# Solved – Support Vectors Not Falling on Margin Lines for e1071 and kernlab packages in R

In a previous thread, Computing the Decision Boundary of a linear SVM model(Computing the decision boundary of a linear SVM model), the following R code was given as a way to compute the formula of the hyperplane and it's margins, given an input set of hyperparameters:

``library(kernlab)     set.seed(101) x <- rbind(matrix(rnorm(120),,2),matrix(rnorm(120,mean=3),,2)) y <- matrix(c(rep(1,60),rep(-1,60))) svp <- ksvm(x,y,type="C-svc") plot(svp,data=x) alpha(svp)  # support vectors whose indices may be found with alphaindex(svp) b(svp)      # (negative) intercept  plot(scale(x), col=y+2, pch=y+2, xlab="", ylab="") w <- colSums(coef(svp)[] * x[unlist(alphaindex(svp)),]) b <- b(svp) abline(b/w,-w/w) abline((b+1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) abline((b-1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) ``

However, in the resulting plot, none of the support vectors actually fall on either margin line.

If

``abline(b/w,-w/w) #is supposed to be the maximum-marginal hyperplane and abline((b+1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) #is supposed to be the yi = +1 margin and abline((b-1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) #is supposed to be the yi = -1 margin ``

then why don't the support vectors, `alpha(svp)`, fall on either the +1 or the -1 margin?

Now before you say it's because `kernelf = "rbfkernel"` by default and our hyperplane and margins have not been transformed according to the `rbfkernel`, I can explicitly call the linear kernel with `kernelf = "vanilladot"` (i.e `svp <- ksvm(x,y,type="C-svc",kernelf="vanilladot")`) and the hyperplane and margins are even farther from the support vectors defined by `alpha(svp)` then when `kernelf="rbfkernel"`.

Note that I find similar results when I use the `e1071` package (which is perhaps not surprising as they both based on the `LIBSVM` library).

If I am doing something wrong, or missing a crucial point (like perhaps `ksvm()` uses a soft margin by default and is hiding the slack variables from me), please let me know!

Here is my code for the linear kernel with the `kernlab` package:

``library(kernlab) set.seed(101) x <- rbind(matrix(rnorm(120),,2),matrix(rnorm(120,mean=3),,2)) y <- matrix(c(rep(1,60),rep(-1,60))) svp <- ksvm(x,y,type="C-svc",kernelf="vanilladot") plot(svp,data=x) plot(x, col=y+2, pch=y+2, xlab="", ylab="") w <- colSums(coef(svp)[] * x[unlist(alphaindex(svp)),]) b <- b(svp) plot(svp,data=x) abline(b/w,-w/w) abline((b+1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) abline((b-1)/w,-w/w,lty=2) ``
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