I received preliminary materials on deep learning in my class. It was written as follows. This raised me the question of the basic meaning of the word deep learning.

Deep learning is a machine learning method using a multi-layer neural network.

- Is a neural network essential for deep learning?
- Isn't it possible to do deep learning without a neural network by using PCA? (Example: PCANet)

I'm confused by similar terms like deep learning and deep neural networks. I have a month to start school and I can't contact my teacher during that time. I would appreciate it if you could tell me.

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#### Best Answer

This is a good question.

Is a neural network essential for deep learning?

Yes, your teacher provided you with a correct definition of deep learning. You can still do machine learning (a broader category) without neural networks, but you need a neural network for it to qualify as 'deep learning'.

Isn't it possible to do deep learning without a neural network by using PCA? (Example: PCANet)

Based on the answer to the last part, no. It by definition wouldn't be 'deep' anymore. PCANet is actually a neural network, by the way.

PCA, on the other hand, isn't 'deep'. If you stack several layers of PCA on top of each other, then there is an equivalent single-layer PCA you could have done, because composing those linear transforms will just give you another linear transform.

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